Türkiye, or officially the Republic of Türkiye, is a country with most of its territory in Anatolia and a small part in Thrace, the southeastern extension of the Balkan Peninsula. It is bordered by Bulgaria in the northwest, Greece in the west, Georgia in the northeast, Armenia, Iran and Azerbaijan in the east, Nakhchivan, and Iraq and Syria in the southeast. It is surrounded by the island of Cyprus and the Mediterranean in the south, the Aegean Sea in the west and the Black Sea in the north. The Sea of Marmara, along with the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles, separates Anatolia from Thrace, that is, Asia from Europe. Turkey has an important geostrategic power as it is located at the crossroads of the European and Asian continents.
The Republic of Turkey was officially declared on 29 October 1923 in the new capital Ankara. The founder and first president of the Republic of Turkey is Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Türkiye is a democratic, secular and unitary constitutional republic governed by a presidential system. Its official language is Turkish, which is the mother tongue of 85% of the population. Being a member of the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, OSCE and G-20 communities, Turkey is integrated with the Western world. It became an associate member of the European Economic Community in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started negotiations for full membership to the European Union in 2005. The country is also a member of organizations such as the Organization of Turkic States, the International Organization of Turkic Culture, the Islamic Cooperation Organization and the Economic Cooperation Organization. Today, Türkiye is considered a regional power thanks to its growing economy, military capacity and diplomatic initiatives. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who was elected the 12th President on August 10, 2014, is also the first President of the Republic of Turkey to be elected by popular vote and continues to serve as the President of Turkey.
Türkiye is a Eurasian country with territory on two continents. 97% of its territory is located on Asia and this part is called Anatolia. The remaining 3% remains in the European continent and is called Eastern Thrace. The Sea of Marmara, the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus separate Anatolia from Thrace and Asia from Europe.
The territory of Türkiye roughly resembles a rectangle, 1,600 kilometers (1,000 mi) long and 800 km (500 mi) wide. It is located between 36° and 42° north parallels and 26° and 45° east meridians. Together with its lakes, it covers an area of 783,562 square kilometers (300,948 sq mi). Of this, 755,688 square kilometers (291,773 sq mi) is Asian territory, while the remaining 23,764 square kilometers (9,174 sq mi) is European territory. With these figures, it is the 37th largest country in the world in terms of area. It is surrounded by sea on three sides. It is surrounded by the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean to the south. To the northwest is the Sea of Marmara.
Türkiye is divided into seven geographical regions. These are the Mediterranean, Eastern Anatolia, Aegean, Southeastern Anatolia, Central Anatolia, Black Sea and Marmara regions. Turkey’s extraordinary ecosystem and habitat diversity has created a significant species diversity in the country.
Türkiye; In its lands, where it has hosted many civilizations, it hosts a wide variety of rich cultures that emerged with a mixture of Oghuz, Anatolian, Ottoman (which was a continuation of Greco-Roman and Islamic cultures) and Western cultures and traditions.
Due to its deep-rooted history, Turkish art carries the traces of various cultures. As a result of the interaction of the Islamic world and Europe, as well as the Ottoman Empire, Turkish, Islamic and European traditions combined to create today’s Turkish art.
Various sports branches are done with interest as professional and amateur. Examples of these sports; wrestling, weightlifting, javelin, archery, horse riding, football, basketball, volleyball, water sports can be given. The most important match of wrestling, which is a traditional Turkish sport, is Kırkpınar Oil Wrestling. It is known that Turks have been wrestling since the 4th century BC. Wrestling matches were always held in celebrations for the revival of nature, marriage ceremonies and victory feasts in the spring months. Traditional Sports Federation was established in 1996 and an important step was taken for oil wrestling. Turkey, which has trained countless successful athletes, takes important ranks in international competitions.
Turkish cuisine, which is the heir of the Ottoman culture, has both influenced and been influenced by the Balkan and Middle Eastern cuisines. In addition, Turkish cuisine shows differences according to the regions. Many regions such as the Black Sea cuisine, the Southeastern cuisine, and the Central Anatolian cuisine have a rich food reservoir of their own.